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Contributors:常志靜(Florian C. Reiter)主講;
Created / Published:國家圖書館
Running Times:00:31:20
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為促進臺灣本土道教研究與世界的對話,國家圖書館與德國萊比錫大學圖書館於2018年11月29日起於該校總圖書館(Bibliotheca Albertina)舉辦「道教與地方宗教─典範的重思」(Daoism and Local Cults: Rethinking the Paradigms)國際學術研討會,以及「天之道:道教與地方宗教」主題文獻展。
在11月30日至12月1日進行「道教與地方宗教─典範的重思」研討會方面,會議主題探討近世以來,道教與地方宗教融合過程中,雙方存在之張力與對立,以及複雜的互動模式。策劃會議合辦方籌備代表柯若樸教授 (Prof. Philip Clart)表示,本會議旨在評估並釐清現存各種學術觀點與立場,以便進行更具反思性與深入分析的辯論。希望能解開學術論述中纏繞在主位∕客位範疇的環節,進而發展出讓持不同立場學者可以共同使用的論述詞彙及明確的參數。為了實現會議目標,因此國家圖書館與萊比錫大學圖書館邀請到歷史與民族學領域的專家學者,包括來自德、法、臺、日、美、英,以及香港等地學者,發表論文來一起探討問題。

Some basic questions:

Who performs – daoshi, fashi, tongling, jitong, wushi?

What are the credentials of the performing person?

What is the pantheon that matters and/or is there any pantheon addressed at all?

What is the nature of the divine vis-à-vis?

What is the relationship between priest or ritual actor and the divine vis-à-vis?

What type of ritual action is performed?

Is there any basis in scriptures and documentary/literary presentations?

A first observation is the obvious absence of the Daoist priest 道士 in the daily reality or routine of lay veneration in temples of shrines where ever we see them. The Daoist who would claim to be a Zhengyi-Daoist 正一comes to the scene when rituals such as communal offerings jiao 醮are staged. The Dao-arena 道場 that is temporarily set up in temples first of all addresses divinities of Anterior Heaven先天 such as the three Pure Ones 三清 that are free from any local flair and influence. The temple may be dedicated to divinities of local renown and the divinities will be present as guests of honour or witnesses to the respective ritual. This is the generally accepted basic frame of orthodox Daoism that seems to exclude exorcist Daoism which we find would be an error, and it is this field of orthodox Daoism that we present for our comparative study. Local divinities of the so-called folk-religion often belong to the world of Posterior Heaven 後天for which the cult for the Eighteen Royal Lords 十八王公in Taiwan is a good example.

I will discuss our theme first of all describing components of the exorcist Thunder cult of Marici 摩利支天后within Heavenly Masters Daoism in the 14th/15th century which matter for our theme and contrast then our findings with the coastal cult for the Eighteen Royal Lords in modern Taiwan. We also want to see how to link up the notion of orthodox Daoism 正法, following the catalogue of basic points as listed above and suggest a guideline for defining both, orthodox Daoism and folk-religion as evidenced in the cults discussed.



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